Prerequisites are git and ssh-server (apt-get install openssh-server).
The installation process is described in the Pro Git book. Below is the setup process with some comments and updates.
Add git user, set some password (you will be asked for it):
$ sudo adduser git
Log in as git user and setup authorized ssh keys:
$ su git git@localname$ cd ~ git@localname$ mkdir .ssh
For each user who need an access to the server add user’s public key into ~/.ssh/authorized_keys to generate new key-pair for the user use ssh-keygen see github manual for details.
git@localname$ cat /home/usera/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys git@localname$ cat /home/userb/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Change permissions for .ssh folder and authorized_keys file:
git@localname$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys git@localname$ chmod 755 ~/.ssh
Make a dir for repositories and init bare repositories:
git@localname$ mkdir ~/server git@localname$ cd server git@localname$ mkdir project.git git@localname$ cd project.git git@localname$ git --bare init
Sequrity - set git-shell for the git user:
# check where git-shell is $ which git-shell /usr/bin/git-shell # edit the etc/passwd $ sudo vim /etc/passwd # find the string for git user: git❌1000:1000::/home/git:/bin/sh # change shell for git user: git❌1000:1000::/home/git:/usr/bin/git-shell
On the user side - clone the repository or add a remote to existing repository:
# clone $ git clone ssh://email@example.com/home/git/server/project.git # or add remote $ cd project $ git remote add origin ssh://firstname.lastname@example.org/home/git/server/project.git
For ‘server.host.name’ there are several options:
- if the server has a domain name then just use it
- use sever IP address instead of host name
- use any host name you like and add it to local hosts file to map to the IP address
Possible problems and solutions
git-shell shows the “Interactive git shell is not enabled.”
This is OK and it will work, additional setup can be done to allow the git user to log-in via ssh and execute special commands like “list” to get repository listing. See:
- man git-shell
- cat /usr/share/doc/git/contrib/git-shell-commands/README
When the user tries to execute a server operation git asks for git user password instead of ssh key passphrase.
Check auth log (/var/log/auth.log) for errors. In my case there were errors related to git user’s .ssh and authorized_keys permissions:
Aug 15 15:25:24 seb-ubu sshd: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for file /home/git/.ssh/authorized_keys ... Aug 15 15:47:48 seb-ubu sshd: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /home/git/.ssh
Changing access permissions as described above fixed the issue.
How to make existing git repository bare
If you already have a repository and want to put it on the server then it seems to be safe to just copy the .git folder from the existing repository:
# source: project/.git $ cp -r project/.git project.git $ cd project.git $ git config --bool core.bare true
Git Server - email notifications on push
Git already has a script to handle email notifications after push. Check the /usr/share/doc/git/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email for instructions:
$ sudo chmod a+x /usr/share/git-core/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email $ cd /path/to/your/repository.git $ ln -sf /usr/share/git-core/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email hooks/post-receive
$ cd /path/to/your/repository.git # who should receive notifications $ git config hooks.mailinglist "email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org" # send emails from $ git config hooks.envelopesender email@example.com # email subject prefix $ git config hooks.emailprefix "[Git]" # project name - edit 'description' file in the git repository folder $ vim description
The post-receive-email script requires sendmail to work. Below is a description of the sendmail setup process.
Setup sendmail on Ubuntu
$ sudo apt-get install sendmail
Check your hosts file - in my case sendmail was incredibly slow and this was fixed by following line in /etc/hosts:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost myhostname <--- order matters!!!
Note that you need to use the same order as above - localhost.localdomain, localhost and then myhostname (replace myhostname with your real host name, check the output of ‘hostname’ command).
Send a test email:
$ echo "My test email being sent from sendmail" | /usr/sbin/sendmail firstname.lastname@example.org
If you have problems with emails then check the log: /var/log/mail.log and error log: /var/log/mail.err.
Setup SMTP for sendmail
If you want to setup SMTP server for you emails do the following:
$ cd /etc/mail $ sudo mkdir auth $ sudo chmod 700 auth $ sudo vim client-info
Enter following line into the client-info file:
AuthInfo:smtp.server.com "U:email@example.com" "I:firstname.lastname@example.org" "P:mypassword"
Here you put you smtp server name (instead of ‘smtp.server.com’) and your credentials. ‘U’ is an smtp user (usually your email), ‘I’ is an account (usually also your email) and ‘P’ is a password. See details for parameters here.
$ sudo bash -c "makemap hash client-info < client-info"
Edit the /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and add following lines before the “MAILER_DEFINITIONS” line:
define('SMART_HOST','smtp.server.com')dnl define('confAUTH_MECHANISMS', 'EXTERNAL GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl FEATURE('authinfo','hash /etc/mail/auth/client-info')dnl
Process the sendmail.mc with m4:
$ sudo bash -c "m4 sendmail.mc > sendmail.cf"
$ sudo service sendmail restart
- sendmail: how to configure sendmail on ubuntu?
- Configuring Sendmail with smarthost Ubuntu Gutsy
- Sendmail startup slow, “unqualified hostname unknown; sleeping for retry”
- gitosis vs gitolite? (and vs simple git server)
- Pro Git: Git on the Server - Setting Up the Server
- git push email notification
- Setting Up Git Commit Email Notifications